1Evans-Wentz, W. Y. The Fairy-faith in Celtic Countries. London: H. Frowde, 1911. 81.
The author attributes this material to Count John de Salis, with annotations by the Rev. J. F. Lynch. Some material originated with Fitzgerald, David. "Popular Tales of Ireland." Revue Celtique IV (1879-1880): 185-200. The quotation continues, "The underlying purpose of this latter ceremony probably was...to exorcise the land from all evil spirits and witches in order that there may be good harvests and rich increase of flocks. Sometimes on such occasions the goddess herself has been seen leading the sacred procession...One night some girls staying on the bill late were made to look through a magic ring by Aine, and lo the hill was crowded with the folk of the fairy goddess who before had been invisible." Evans-Wentz concludes, "Under ordinary circumstances, as a very close observer of the Lough Gur peasantry informs me, the old people will pray to the Saints, but if by any chance such prayers remain unanswered they then invoke other powers, the fairies, the goddesses Aine and Fennel, or other pagan deities, whom they seem to remember in a vague subconscious manner through tradition." In a 1988 interview a local man claimed that "...one night the ceremony was omitted on account of the death of a neighbour, but that upon looking toward the sacred site the people observed phantom torches in even greater number than when they usually circled the hill, with Aine herself in front directing the procession...The festival of Aine and Saint John's Eve were closely linked: they were some of the festivals that were changed from the old religion to the new." (McNamara, Sean. "Aine Leads Fire Procession." Ed. Michael Quinlan. The Lough Gur & District Historical Society Journal: Special Folklore Edition. 7 (1991): 9-10.)
2Dames, Michael. Mythic Ireland. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992. 63.
The source of the archaic name "'The Seignory of Any" for Knockainey is: Dunlop, Robert, and George O'Brien. "An Unpublished Survey of the Plantation of Munster in 1622." The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland Sixth 14.2 (1924): 129.
3Monaghan, Patricia. The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. New York: Facts On File, 2003. 10-11.
Fitzgerald, David. "Popular Tales of Ireland." Revue Celtique IV (1879-1880): 185-200.
According to some, Áine "was one of the Goddesses who suffered at the hands of the Christian monks who found Her idea of 'free love' too disturbing for them; thus, as a symbol of the powers of the feminine, Her followers were among the first to suffer repression at the hands of the Christians..."
4Gregory, Isabella Augusta (Persse). Gods and Fighting Men. London: J. Murray, 1904. 77-78. This story may be read in its entirety here.
5"Through a geopolitical lens, the reputed union of Geároid Iarla's father, Maurice Fitzgerald (Second Earl of Desmond) with Áine, the goddess of Munster sovereignty, may have done much to gain the acceptance of this Norman family into the local Irish community." ("Lough Gur." Voices from the Dawn. Web. 24 May 2012. <http://www.voicesfromthedawn.com/?p=58>.)
6"Aine - Celtic Goddess." Tansy Firedragon's Tome. Web. 25 May 2012. <http://tansyfiredragon.blogspot.com/2011/02/aine-celtic-goddess.html>.
Michael Dames writes that, "Aine's proper name was also an Irish-language word, aine. Aine the goddess lives on as aine the word, which means: 'Delight, joy, pleasure, agility, expedition, swiftness, play, sport, amusement, music, harmony, melody, experience, truth, veracity, brightness, glow, radiance, splendour, glory, brilliance, wit, and drinking up.'" (Dames, Michael. Mythic Ireland. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992. 62.)
One source lists medicinal items associated with Áine: "Healing: Angelica Balm, Blackberry, Cowslip, Elder, Fennel, Flax, Garlic, Goat's Rue, Mugwort, Nettle, and Oak; Fertility: Hawthorn, Mistletoe, and Oak; Prosperity: Alfalfa, Ash, and Elder; Protection: Agrimony, Angelica, Ash, Birch, Blackberry, Bladderwrack, Broom, Elder, Fennel, Flax, Holly, Lavender, Mallow, Mistletoe, Mugwort, Nettle, Oak, and Parsley."
A different website provides the recipe for "Aine's Incense:
½ oz. meadowsweet flowers and leaf~ must be gathered when the plant is in full bloom.
½ oz. finally chopped pine needles
½ oz. Lemon Verbena oil."
A blessing to evoke the goddess may be found here:
"We will wash our faces
In the nine rays of the sun
In the sunwoven cloak of the Lady of Light
We will find peace
We will be blessed in our rising up
And in our lying down
We will be blessed in our waking
And in our sleeping
We will be blessed in our coming in
And in our going out
Light before us
Light behind us
Light above us
Light below us
Light within us
Bright about us shall ever be
the cloak of Áine Cli."
7Westropp, Thomas J. "The Ancient Sanctuaries of Knockainey and Clogher, County Limerick, and Their Goddesses." Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section C: Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics, Literature 34 (1917-1919): 51-53.
9Smyth, Sean. "Cnoc Áine." Personal interview. 21 June 1999.
The author's measurements for the ruined cairn are: "48 to 55 feet across [14.6 to 16.8 m], and 11 feet [3.4 m] high to the west, 6 feet [1.8 m] to the south, and 8 to 9 feet [2.4 to 2.7 m] elsewhere."
11Meehan, Cary. The Traveller's Guide to Sacred Ireland: A Guide to the Sacred Places of Ireland, Her Legends, Folklore and People. Glastonbury: Gothic Image, 2004. 427.
12Quinlan, Michael. "Francis Byrne's Account." The Lough Gur & District Historical Society Journal: Special Folklore Edition. 7 (1991): 9-10.
The stepping-stone bridge was called Clochaunainey ( Áine's Stones). A bit farther downstream from this primitive bridge the river widens into a shallow ford for vehicles. Near the center of the ford were three large stones, set upright in a line to mark the position of Áine's safe crossing for time of floods. (Crawford, Henry S. "Primitive Bridge or Causeway at Knockainey, Co. Limerick." The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland Sixth 7.1 (1917): 82.)
13Dames, Michael. Mythic Ireland. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992. 62-3.
"Knockainy Castle." Irish Antiquities. Web. 25 May 2012. <http://irishantiquities.bravehost.com/limerick/knockainy/knockainy.html>.
This is a tower-house of four stories. Part of the top level is gone. The original entrance is intact; there is another entrance in the adjoining wall. The third floor ceiling is vaulted and there is a half vault at the first floor. A murder-hole just inside the entrance leads from first floor level and a spiral stairway in the corner leads to the higher levels. It was said to be a ruin in 1584.
Web correspondent Derek Ryan (10/9/2012) wrote to clarify that the original "Desmond Castle," the more logical location of the "Áine’s Leap" story, is indicated on OS maps by its absence. See this annotated image from the OS map, in which the green arrow points to the ruined Knockainy Castle depicted on our page, and the red arrow shows the site of the (now lost) Desmond Castle. View the original here.
14"Angel Wisdom with Sharon Taphorn ~ Goddess Aine Leap of Faith." Sound of Heart Productions. Web. 25 May 2012. <http://soundofheart.org/galacticfreepress/content/angel-wisdom-sharon-taphorn-goddess-aine-leap-faith>.
From this website: "Sometimes we all need to just take that leap of faith. When you are ready call on the Goddess Aine she will help lead your way!! Indecision leads to stagnation and that leads to our souls not perfecting. We all need to keep moving, learning, growing and allowing our soul to perfect and become all that we can be. Take your leap of faith today!!! May the love of the Goddess be with you always!"
A similar "leap of faith" association with Áine's may be found here.
15Fitzgerald, David. "Popular Tales of Ireland." Revue Celtique IV (1879-1880): 187-88. This may be read in its entirety here.